Skip to main content

Ambitious targets needed to achieve biodiversity goals

By 7. December 2022No Comments

In this series of papers, the authors discuss the science behind the goals and targets of the post2020 Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) currently negotiated at COP15.

The analyses are based on work in support of the negotiations, and presented in the science briefs here. They are intended to discuss the science behind the goals and targets of the GBF, and provide recommendations for addressing impasses in the final negotiations.

Natural Ecosystem Area and Integrity

This paper focuses on how actions on natural ecosystem protection (Targets 1 and 3), restoration (Target 2), and spatial planning (Target 1) can contribute to an ambitious net gain in natural terrestrial ecosystem extent (Goal A).

Leadley P, Obura D, Archer E, Costello MJ, Dávalos LM, Essl F, et al. (2022) Actions needed to achieve ambitious objectives of net gains in natural ecosystem area by 2030 and beyond. PLOS Sustain Transform 1(12): e0000040. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pstr.0000040


This paper highlights the need for  ambitious restoration, and illustrates how different types of restoration actions can support achieving this objectives. The paper further provides information on baselines and reference states for restoration.

Leadley P, Archer E, Bendandi B, Cavender-Bares J, Davalos L, DeClerck F, et al. (2022) Setting ambitious international restoration objectives for terrestrial ecosystems for 2030 and beyond. PLOS Sustain Transform 1(12): e0000039. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pstr.0000039

Climate Targets

It‘s clear that the biodiversity and climate crises need to be addressed in tandem. This paper discusses the current science behind the climate target of the GBF. It highlights the role biodiversity and ecosystems play in climate change mitigation and adaptation.

Archer E, Obura D, Leadley P, Arneth A, Smith P, Mori AS (2022) Establishing a climate target within the post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework. PLOS Clim 1(12): e0000106. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pclm.0000106